Target Audience and Recommended Age Groups

To optimally address your customers, but also to attain legal security, you can provide the following data in your product information.

Under the heading of recommendation systems, a selection of systems is available for which you can provide the respective values. In addition to FSK and USK rating information this primarily includes the recommendation systems for the target group definition for school books (type of school, state/province, vocational training)


By defining audiences, you can deliver standardised and automatically readable information concerning reachable customer groups.

In ONIX 3.0, the audience is preferably to be specified as a recommendation system specification in the audience composite. In the AudienceCodeType or b204 (code list 29), a value of 01 specifies that you are defining an ONIX audience. Please enter the associated value from code list 28 in the AudienceCodeValue or b206. The audience specification is repeatable, so you are able to select multiple target groups.

In addition, you are able to file in the audience description (b207 or AudienceDescription) additional information about the intended audience.

The information that your product is intended for young adults with an interest in technology is expressed as follows.

ONIX 3.0 Short
<b207>People who are technically oriented</b207>
ONIX 3.0 Reference
<AudienceDescription>People who are technically oriented</AudienceDescription>

Recommended Age

Defining a recommended age allows you to specifically target certain circles of customers. Metabooks limits itself to specifying reading age and interest age.

For each age recommendation, an audience range composite is to be generated.

The AudienceRangeQualifier or b074 specifies the type of age recommendation. For this,Metabooks uses the following values from code list 30.

Code Age Recommendation
16 Age of interest – accurate to the month
17 Age of interest – accurate to the year
18 Reading age – accurate to the year

Age specifications may be provided in the following formats.

  • Closed specification: defines a range from a certain age to a certain age (e. g. 3 to 5 years)
  • Open specification: defines a minimum or maximum age (e. g. up to 3 years)
  • Exact age specification: defines a specific age (e. g. for 3-year-old children)

By selecting values from code list 31 for AudienceRangePrecision or b075, you choose either a closed, open or exact specification. The associated age value is entered in AudienceRangeValue or b076.

For closed specifications, please repeat AudienceRangePrecision or b075 and AudienceRangeValue or b076.

A closed age recommendation for a reading age between 12 and 16 years is to be specified as follows.

ONIX 3.0 Short
ONIX 3.0 Reference